Enhanced Fujita Scale

Forecasters and researchers use a wind damage scale to classify tornadoes. The original Fujita scale was developed by T. Theodore Fujita and was put into use in 1973. The scale was enhanced in 2007, with rankings running from EF (Enhanced Fujita) 0-5. The ratings were based on the amount and type of wind damage.

EF Rating Wind Speeds Expected Damage
EF-0 65-85 mph 'Minor' Damage: Shingles blown off or parts of a roof peeled off, damage to gutters/siding, branches broken off trees, shallow rooted trees toppled. ef-0 tornado damage to trees and building
EF-1 86-110 mph 'Moderate' Damage: More significant roof damage, windows broken, exterior doors damages or lost, mobile homes overturned or badly damaged. ef-1 tornado damage to mobile home and brick house
EF-2 111-135 mph 'Considerable' Damage: Roofs torn off well constructed homes, homes shifted off their foundations, mobile homes completely destroyed, large trees snapped or uprooted, cars can be tossed. ef-2 tornado damage to buildings
EF-3 136-165 mph 'Severe' Damage: Entire stories of well constructed homes destroyed, significant damage done to large buildings, homes with weak foundations can be clown away, trees begin to lose their bark. ef-3 tornado damage to demolished tracktor-trailer and brick house
EF-4 166-200 mph 'Extreme' Damage: Well constructed homes are leveled, cars are thrown significant distances, top story exterior walls of masonry buildings would likely collapse. ef-4 tornado damage to demolished car and building
EF-5 > 200 mph 'Massive/​Incredible' Damage: Well constructed homes are swept away, steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged, high-rise buildings sustain severe structural damage, trees are usually completely debarked, stripped of branches, and snapped. ef-5 tornado damage to road and leveled building

Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)